Designing a batch reactor unit operation.

This is a final year design project for chemical engineering which requires designing a batch reactor unit operation. The chemical process is to produce 20000 tonnes/year of erucamide from reaction of erucic acid with ammonia. The reaction formula as follows,

C22H42O2+ NH3



Mass, mole and energy balances: I need detailed calculations for mass, mole and energy balances on excel. The output of the unit operation is around 3000 kg/hr.

The temperature in the reactor should be 200

 and pressure of 10 bar.

Equipment data sheet (Reactor sizing such as volume, width, thickness and height). Knowing that the reactor should be able to produce 20000 tonnes/year and extra 20% for volume as pre-caution for further demand on the product (erucamide), and the operation time is 8000 hours/year.

The reactor is one major unit to produce erucamide which consist of 5 major units which are: splitter, distillation column, reactor, distillation column and crystalliser.

The efficiency (conversion) of the reactor should be 95%.

Material of construction: can you please mention the material that we could build the reactor with and the reason for your choice. Take into consideration cost, safety, and corrosion resistance.

Process and instrumentation diagram (P&ID): The P&ID is needed for the reactor unit operation (control valves, temperature indicators (TI), pressure indicator (PI), level indicator (LI) flow indicator (FI), pressure safety valves(PSV), flow control valve(FCV), temperature control valve (TCV), pressure control valve (PCV), pumps, heat exchanger if needed (especially the one necessary to transform liquid ammonia to vapour ammonia before it enters the reactor). Discuss each element used and the reason for using them.

If the procedure based on calculations needs more than one reactor to produce 20000 tonnes/year of erucamide, do mention it please and include it in the P&ID. Based on the size of the reactor and the cost in addition to the efficiency it will result if used in parallel or in series reactors (Mostly Parallel is the required choice but based on your references, it could be the other option).

Area of responsibility:  the area that I’m responsible about is the plant lay-out, it should be included in the report before the conclusion. Briefly, the location is important and take in concern the effect on production process, economic aspect, administration, storage dispatch and physical health of the operatives. This include the canteen, toilets, workers’ rest rooms, access routes and the car parks and Hygiene. The location of the plant will be in the UK, Hull city.

Calculation of the reaction residence time and concentration:  In the report, residence time and concentration of the reaction should be calculated and discussed.

The calculations to be included in appendices.

Type of catalyst will be used in the reaction: Life-span of the catalyst and how it can be reactivated or poisoned depending on the power of the catalyst should be discussed in the report.

All the calculations should be done on excel.

I need to know the ratio of the reaction mentioned above.

The reactor will consist of:

 Two inlets (Erucic acid) & (ammonia) and

Two outlets (steam + unreacted ammonia as vapours) and (unreacted erucic acid + erucamide as liquids).

Discuss how can you maintain the temperature when you drain the product from the reactor.

The words count should be 4000 words: appendices don’t count in the words count.

Provide a section for the unit operation HAZOP [hazards operability analysis] (safety, pre-cautions, if something went wrong i.e. high or low flow, temperature and pressures what is the consequences. What could be done to prevent any mistake and any action needs to be taken).

Include any relative drawings, diagrams or tables.

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