Many elements need to be considered individually by a woman, man, or couple when choosing the most appropriate contraceptive method. Some of these elements include safety, effectiveness, availability (including accessibility and affordability), and acceptability. Although most contraceptive methods are safe for use by most women, U.S. MEC provides recommendations on the safety of specific contraceptive methods for women with certain characteristics and medical conditions.
Compare and contrast two forms of contraception including indications, contraindications, side effects, US Medical Eligibility Criteria (USMRC), US Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use (USSPR), affordability, and mechanisms of action.
APA format, 4 references 1-2 pages.
Expert Solution Preview
Introduction: The use of contraception has become an essential aspect of family planning and reproductive health. Many contraceptive methods are available, and choosing the most appropriate one can be challenging. In this answer, we will compare and contrast two forms of contraception, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and hormonal contraceptives, based on their indications, contraindications, side effects, US Medical Eligibility Criteria (USMRC), US Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use (USSPR), affordability, and mechanisms of action.
IUDs and hormonal contraceptives are both highly effective in preventing pregnancy and have few significant adverse effects. However, they differ in many aspects.
Indications: IUDs are a long-acting reversible contraceptive method that can be used by women of reproductive age who desire long-term contraception without the hassle of daily maintenance. They are an excellent option for women who have multiple sexual partners and those with contraindications to estrogen-containing hormonal methods. On the other hand, hormonal contraceptives are available in different forms, including pills, patches, injections, and vaginal rings, and can be used by women who can remember to take their medication daily or apply the method correctly. They may also be used to treat other medical conditions such as acne, dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, and heavy or irregular periods.
Contraindications: IUDs are contraindicated in women with severe cervical stenosis, pelvic infection, and a current or past severe liver disease. Hormonal contraceptives are contraindicated in women with a history of deep venous thrombosis, cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and breast cancer.
Side Effects: The most common side effect of IUDs is menstrual irregularities (such as heavy or prolonged bleeding, or spotting in between periods). In the case of hormonal contraceptives, side effects may include breakthrough bleeding, nausea, breast tenderness, and mood changes.
US Medical Eligibility Criteria: Both IUDs and hormonal contraceptives are considered Category 1 contraceptives, meaning they present no restrictions for use and are safe for most women, including those who have not given birth.
US Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use: The USSPR recommends IUDs as the first-line contraceptive choice for women in most circumstances. Hormonal contraceptives are second-line options for women using contraception and can also be prescribed for various other medical indications.
Affordability: Hormonal contraceptives are available in different forms and brands, and costs may vary depending on insurance coverage and state regulations. IUDs can be more expensive initially but may be more cost-effective in the long term due to their extended efficacy.
Mechanisms of Action: IUDs work by preventing fertilization by inhibiting the sperm’s ability to reach and fertilize the egg or preventing implantation of the fertilized egg. Hormonal contraceptives work by inhibiting ovulation, making it impossible for sperm to fertilize the egg.
In conclusion, the choice of contraceptive method should be individualized to meet the specific needs of the woman, man, or couple. Both IUDs and hormonal contraceptives are safe and effective methods of contraception. However, they differ concerning indications, contraindications, side effects, US Medical Eligibility Criteria, affordability, and mechanisms of action. Therefore, healthcare providers should educate and inform their patients about the available options to help them make informed decisions.